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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

The Irish. They sing, dance, drink and sing some more. The lads were singing lullabies to a little baby in Bordeaux to try and get it to go to sleep.

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据美国艾美仕医疗信息研究所周四发布的名为《全球用药:展望2018》的报告,2013年的药品费用支出提高了7个百分点,而2014年的药品总支出将达1.06万亿美元。
sc=scene(n 风景),roll(n 卷)-卷着风景的画卷
中国手机制造巨头华为发布了业务预期,在2016年,其智能手机发货量达到了1.39亿台,同比增长29%,而全球手机出货量的同比增长仅为0.6%。

"The average salary level of employees grew by about 6.3 percent year on year in the first three quarters of last year, while China's annual GDP growth stood at 6.7 percent in 2016, both slowing from a year earlier," Jin added.
STEP 1: GET THE LOOK
fat的人que缺乏锻炼就容易劳累

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

商务部:2018年全国网上零售额突破9万亿元

8. 斯特吉尔·辛普森(Sturgill Simpson),《乡村音乐的大现代之声》(Matamodern Sound in Country Music),High Top Mountain。一支极为聪敏的乐队做出复古的改革:乡村乐中曾经发生过这样的事。但在斯特吉尔·辛普森突破性的第二张专辑中,他把这一点变成了可适应环境的标志,就建立在他那动人而通透的男中音之上。
In 55th place, University of Edinburgh Business School regains the rank it held two years ago. The school dropped down the tables last year after failing to make it into the Masters in Management ranking. The University of Bradford School of Management recorded its best progression, aided by the school’s first appearance in the ranking of the top 100 Executive MBAs.
n. 谷物,小麦,玉米

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

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7. The legacy of a celebrated neuroscientist is contested
“人们很疯狂,我感到不知所措。”

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 马特·劳拉
  • 香河昔日投资客:放弃炒房 为父母在香河安家
  • 上个月,中国贸易顺差增至4962亿元人民币,高于去年12月的3821亿元人民币。经济学家曾预计该数据将略高于3890亿元人民币。以美元计,该月中国贸易顺差从去年12月的600.9亿美元增至632.9亿美元,也超过了606亿美元的预期。
  • 社科院专家:二季度一线城市房价增速将会放缓
  • 西宁市不动产交易登记实现一窗办理
  • 如果你需要买一辆新车,你有36个可选择的品牌。每个汽车品牌都满足了不同的需求,但并不是每个品牌都适合每一位消费者。有些品牌擅长制作高性能的车,有些专注于制作家庭适用的跨界休旅车,或是专门制作豪华型轿车。
    Not because I am happy to see the end of what was one of television’s smartest series, a pioneer of what is now generally accepted as the current golden age of small-screen serials.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 国家统计局毛盛勇:三月份房价运行总体比较平稳, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

新型公寓进租赁市场 主打年轻白领及创业人群

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

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Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • This was never more powerful than when he talked publicly for the first time about his sexuality.
    法国电信商学院(Télécom Business School)和布拉格经济大学(University of Economics)的教师性别比例最为均衡,女教师占50%,瑞士苏黎世大学(University of Zurich)的教师性别比例最不均衡,女教师仅为9%。瑞士洛桑国际管理发展学院(IMD)的教师队伍国际化程度最高,94%来自海外,米兰理工大学MIP管理学院的教师则均为意大利人。
  • The other finalists, each of which will receive 10,000, were: Losing the Signal , by Jacque McNish and Sean Silcoff, who look at how BlackBerry went off course; Digital Gold , Nathaniel Popper’s examination of the rise of bitcoin, the virtual currency; How Music Got Free , Stephen Witt’s history of the way piracy and peer-to-peer sharing have disrupted the recorded music industry; Anne-Marie Slaughter’s new book Unfinished Business , about the challenge of achieving gender balance; and Misbehaving , in which Richard Thaler traces the development of behavioural economics.
    干得漂亮!在不到20个词的一句话里,eBay集前五届冠军之长,做到了啥也没说。怀着沉重的心情,我将2016年度金废话奖总冠军授予eBay。
    While Insead’s joint programme dropped back into second place, its single-school programme moved up three places to fourth, a place it last occupied in 2011.
    STEP 9: BE SURE to tell everyone to shut up on a daily basis, it's endearing you know
    vt. 起草,征

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 海南银行不良率为零 房地产行业贷款占比42.09%
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 住建部:把“稳地价稳房价稳预期”落到实处

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to a scientist who managed to build the world’s tiniest machines out of molecules.
contain
Stand: Lenovo CEO Yang Yuanqing shared his $3 million bonus with workers
5、毕福剑违纪
考试之前,网友通过社交软件,将考试中将要出现的问题和答案截图发布出来。
An international medical journal's retraction of 107 research papers from China, many of them by clinical doctors, has reignited concerns over academic credibility in the country.
入围名单以聚焦科技业的图书为主,Basic Books和Oneworld Publications出版的《机器人的崛起:大规模失业的威胁与科技》最终战胜了强大的对手。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Pan Jiancheng, deputy head of the bureau's China Economic Monitoring and Analysis Center, said the increasing proportion of research and development expenditure to GDP indicates that the driving force of economic growth is transforming to innovation-focus from the traditional factors - exports and investment.
  • 为何7成年轻人有房?港媒:中小城市房价仍能承受
  • 然而,由于这些先进的新组件供应紧张,可能会让许多客户在9月之后才能等到新款iPhone。这给Essential或三星(Samsung) Note 8等竞争对手带来了机会;Essential是由安卓(Android)操作系统的联合创始人安迪?鲁宾(Andy Rubin)领导的智能手机制造商,该公司正以其售价699美元的时尚新机型瞄准苹果等竞争对手的高端客户。据信谷歌(Google)也在筹备新版Pixel智能手机,这款手机很受早期试用者欢迎。
    在2017年FT对全球95个管理学硕士项目的排行中,虽然瑞士圣加仑大学(University of St Gallen)继续蝉联冠军,但法国和英国商学院分别以24个和18个项目入围成为中坚力量。超过一半的英国商学院排名上升,而只有一家法国商学院排名上升。三分之一的英国商学院排名上升5位,相比之下,三分之二的法国商学院排名下降5位或更多。
  • “金九”楼市分化:深圳遇冷,广州“翘尾”
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • It's impossible to list every woman who's ever existed, this list obviously be restricted to women who've achieved a fair level of celebrity. These are the hottest women celebrities of 2015.
    祝你享尽新年佳节的快乐和新年的礼品。
  • I hope you have a most happy and prosperous New Year.
    根据电影监管机构数据显示,中国电影票房销售额在去年同比了增长48.7%
  • 政治建军、改革强军、依法治军
    在纽约市许多公寓楼的大门背后,充斥着居民们不协调的抱怨声。从我的“房地产答疑”(Ask Real Estate)专栏所收到的抱怨信中,我们可以一窥居民们是如何应对生活在拥挤、昂贵的住房中的种种不顺心的。比方说,有个合作公寓的股东被邻居家的老鼠窝吓坏了;有一对父母被禁止将婴儿车推进楼内的电梯;有个租户厨房里的橱柜从墙壁上掉了下来。
  • 日前,一名14岁的中国少年,在一个晚上的时间内克服了人类史上的两大恐惧:被困电梯和完成家庭作业。而这多亏了他机智的性格。
    网上零售对北京市社会消费品零售额的贡献率达到82.6%。网上零售也促使一些传统商店开展线上销售,北京77家老字号中的13家开展了网上零售业务,商品涉及小吃、鞋等。
    3.你老板从他认识的人那收到了你认识的人给的简历。
  • 但是白人身份认同的斗争不仅仅是个政治问题,它也是一个“深藏的”故事,一个看到别人都在向前,自己却感觉困在原地的故事。
    国际美容整形外科学会发布的数据显示,若考虑人口因素,韩国现在是全世界整形美容业最大的市场。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 十里河建材市场搬迁成传闻 商会称其并未收到通知 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

建材市场的整治

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

国外分拆国内合并 照明业运营模式渐变

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

北京:市民可热线举报公租房转租转借

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

湖南整治不动产登记窗口作风问题

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 这两部极具娱乐性,追求整体效果,建立在事实基础上的程序剧(procedural)都是关于惊人的犯罪与腐败滋生的大型机构的故事——一个是关于罗马天主教会,一个是关于华尔街银行。除了激发起正直的愤怒,麦卡锡与麦凯以不同的方式,把悬疑、情感和道德的分量融入到接电话、敲键盘、读报表等现代日常工作中去。
  • 2.别迷恋哥,哥只是个传说。
  • 2015年上半年全球LED灯泡价格调查:中国区价格下降最明显

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 5.品牌推广:增长了16.4%
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 泰勒·斯威夫特vs. 凯蒂·佩里
    单词pilot 联想记忆:
    无人驾驶汽车是当下炒作得最火的行业,这类汽车的倡导者已成为冗词赘语的世界级领军人物。埃隆?马斯克(Elon Musk)自称“要在一个安全系数超出人工驾驶数量级倍数的一体化平台上专注于全自动驾驶的实现”。(就是说特斯拉肯定能防止车祸的发生)。
  • “今年榜单有趣的地方之一是,尽管网站都开始实行更严的密码设定政策,位数少的密码仍出现在今年的榜单上。”

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 根据路透社(Reuters)基于中国国家统计局(National Bureau of Statistics)计算得到的加权平均值,10月份中国新建住宅平均价格同比上涨12.3%,
  • 软体家具新国标年内出台 限量纺织品的有害物质
  • 《逃出绝命镇》

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 多家物管禁止共享单车进小区 居民们有话说
  • Household substance abuse
  • 写字楼会否成为下一个投资风口
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

中弘股份真能逃脱“退市”风险?分析师称走势不乐观

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 整装市场下的卫浴行业新趋势
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 京津冀环保部门发布首个统一VOCs含量限值标准
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

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Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

提供就业指导工作的北京新锦程研究院的执行院长张景岫表示,他并没看到高校学生的创业意向有降低的趋势,但是他承认学生的自主创业意向很低。
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2012年,谷歌发明了谷歌眼镜,一台你能戴在你脸上的电脑。在街上行走或者进行每天的任务的时候戴着它,可以同步看一些覆盖在眼镜上的日程会议,短信及地铁警戒等信息。戴着它行走的时候,可以用它们打视频电话,甚至把直播视频上传到网络,这一切都不需要动手。谷歌眼镜可能挺酷的,挺新颖,还有创新性,但是它绝对不是第一副可佩戴的电脑眼镜。
学员平均年龄:36岁(英语授课项目)
Estimates vary, but the research firm IDC projects that wearable tech will exceed 19 million units this year—more than triple last year’s sales—and will soar to 111.9 million units by 2018. Credit Suisse values the industry at somewhere between $30 billion and $50 billion in the next two to four years. But before that happens, the nascent market has that pesky wouldn’t-be-caught-dead-wearing-it hurdle to clear.
Kate Hudson spoke to British Elle magazine exclusively for this interview。   凯特·哈德森接受了英国ELLE杂志对她的独家专访。Does actress Kate Hudson know wha
2. Google Docs
沙特王储穆罕默德·本·萨勒曼表示,多数被捕人员已同意归还部分非法获得的钱财,以换取自由。
Hurricane Irma
2012中国创新人物奖中国互联网行业常常被描述成冒牌王国,尤其是对在中国被禁的那些公司的仿冒。中国搜索巨头百度(Baidu Inc.)的网站外观很像谷歌。腾讯的旗舰产品、即时信息服务QQ于1999年以OICQ的名字发布,与当时流行的即时信息服务ICQ功能相似。新浪(Sina Corp.)广受欢迎的微博总是被西方媒体说成“与推特(Twitter)类似”。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

地产市场加速分化 一二线火热三四线库存压力大

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 报告指出,中国网游开发商自今年年初以来一直在考虑按照时间收费。在排名前十的网络游戏中,时间收费型网游占据了4个席位,其中两款是今年才开始商业化运营的新游戏,包括盛大互动娱乐有限公司(Shanda Interactive Entertainment)的主要新游戏《永恒之塔》(AION)。Cnzz.com说,转向时间收费模式更有可能给游戏带来公平和公正感,因为玩的最好的玩家将是那些花时间最多的人,而不是那些花钱最多的用户。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 认为西方民主政体不会受影响将是愚蠢的。
  • 选板材莫被名称忽悠 须索要环保授权书
  • Given the Raptors' existing personnel, the Ibaka/Tucker additions qualify as massive defensive upgrades, giving coach Dwane Casey the tools he will need to grind out postseason wins if Lowry and DeMar DeRozan see their scoring efficiency dip as it has in years past.
  • “青年公寓”让人才多睡一小时
  • 这句简练、言之有物、几乎可称之为妙语的话提醒我们,即便接下来的奖项都相当雷人,还是有人能够做到直白的。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 福建印发方案 今年城市养老服务设施覆盖率将超90%
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 周二公布的数据显示,去年12月,中国规模以上工业企业利润同比下降8%,是2011年末以来的最大降幅。11月数据的同比下滑幅度为4.2%。
  • 纸筒插秧机可以让一名使用者在几分钟内在85英尺(约合26米)长的一块田地里种植264棵幼苗。这在以前通常耗时数小时,如今只需几分钟。使用者在种植农作物上花费的时间更少,可以节省出更多的时间做其他的事,比如农田改进、市场销售、或者干脆休息休息。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

橱柜企业面临五大困境 想发展需如何突围?

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